Misfortune would unfortunately find Lisbon again as they continued their efforts to rebuild the city after the devastating earthquake in 1755 with the queen and future king being forced to flee temporarily to Brazil after the country was invaded in the early nineteenth century by Napoleon Bonaparte’s forces who would pillage, sack, or destroy many of the newly rebuilt buildings and properties. The result would be further change to the urban landscape as the new century gave rise to new artistic and architectural movements that found their place among the bookstores and cafes of the Baixa and Chiado districts (many of which would unfortunately see destruction in 1988 when a fire broke out in the latter district) while the introduction of the mosaic pavement took hold and spread to the rest of the Portuguese Speaking world. Lisbon however remains one of the most expansive examples of the technique thanks to its faithful implementation in nearly all of the walkways and streets that crisscross the city. But despite such artistic influences the development of industry and commerce continued to be seen as the primary stimulator of the city’s growth and by the mid-twentieth century would undergo another facelift as the Estado Novo’s regime commissioned nationalist and monumental projects like the modification to the Santa Maria de Belem for the 1940 Portuguese Exhibition. A decision in the 1990s was made to again renovate and modernize the historic quarter with every effort being made to restore buildings the district has gone on to become the site for many international events and programs like hosting the European Capital of Culture in 1994.